早在今年 8 月英特尔举办的 Architecture Day 2021 活动中,英特尔就分享过其第十二代酷睿 Alder Lake CPU 架构的核心设计细节。在 Alder Lake 中,英特尔专为 Windows 11 进行了优化,以更好地利用 Alder Lake 中所采用的 P+E 核心的混合架构和硬件线程调度技术 —— Intel Thread Director。

As early as this August, Intel’s Architecture Day 2021 event, Intel shared the core design details of its twelfth-generation Core Alder Lake CPU architecture. In Alder Lake, Intel optimized for Windows 11 to make better use of the P+E core hybrid architecture and hardware thread scheduling technology-Intel Thread Director used in Alder Lake.

In order to test these technologies and get a glimpse of the performance of Alder Lake on Windows 11 and Linux, and how much better, the foreign media Phoronix recently conducted an in-depth test. This test chose Core i9-12900K, which is also Intel Currently the top twelfth generation CPU.

The test platform used this time consists of the following components:

Intel Core i9-12900K processor
ROG STRIX Z690E GAMING WIFI motherboard
Corsair 64GB DDR5-4400 RAM

Windows systems participating in the test:

Windows 11 Pro Build 22000 system

Linux systems participating in the test:

Ubuntu 21.10 + Linux 5.16 Git
Ubuntu 21.10 + Linux 5.15
Ubuntu 21.10
Clear Linux 35250
Fedora Workstation 35

A total of 104 tests were conducted this time, including browser benchmark tests, video encoding, image encoding and decompression, etc. Let me start with the conclusion. From the final result chart below, Windows has topped the list in 47 tests out of 104 tests, accounting for 45.2%. It is the best performing system among the 6 participating systems. It has become the best platform for Alder Lake processors.

The second-ranked operating system is Clear Linux 35250, 37 out of 104 tests performed well, accounting for 35.6; although Fedora Workstation 35 ranked third in this test, it only gained advantage in 10 tests. The gap with the second place can be said to be very large.

Compared with Alder Lake, in previous Tiger Lake CPU-based performance tests, Windows has a slightly weaker performance than Ubuntu. This also verifies Intel’s statement that the current Alder Lake architecture does have specific optimizations for Windows 11 , And from this test, the optimization range is not small.

As mentioned earlier, Alder Lake uses a hybrid architecture, which uses a core combination of P + E. The Linux scheduler is designed to control multiple core clusters, but it is not designed to distinguish between different types of cores, which means that the scheduler does not know the performance difference between cores. Therefore, the scheduler will send the workload to the E core, and these workloads should have been sent to the faster P core.

In addition to completely disabling the E core (but will cause a decline in multi-core performance), currently Linux has no solution to this problem. In the future, Linux will definitely bring better compatibility with Alder Lake, but there is no guarantee when these improvements will come.

The following are browser benchmark tests, video encoding, image encoding and decompression tests. Interested users can continue to view, or visit Phoronix to view the full report.

In the browser and web application benchmark tests using Selenium (tests in some scenarios, the smaller the value, the better, please pay attention to the distinction):

.

AV1 format decoding and encoding test:

,

Decompression performance test and big data visualization performance test:

为了测试这些技术并一窥 Alder Lake 在 Windows 11 和 Linux 上的表现究竟谁更好以及具体好多少,外媒 Phoronix 近日做了一次深入的测试,此次测试选择了 Core i9-12900K,这也是英特尔目前最顶级的第十二代 CPU。

此次所采用的测试平台由以下部件组成:

  • 英特尔 Core i9-12900K 处理器
  • 玩家国度 ROG STRIX Z690E GAMING WIFI 主板
  • 海盗船 64GB DDR5-4400 内存

参与测试的 Windows 系统:

  • Windows 11 Pro Build 22000 系统

参与测试的 Linux 系统:

  • Ubuntu 21.10 + Linux 5.16 Git
  • Ubuntu 21.10 + Linux 5.15
  • Ubuntu 21.10
  • Clear Linux 35250
  • Fedora Workstation 35

此次一共进行了 104 项测试,其中包括浏览器基准测试、视频编码、图像编码和解压缩等。先说结论,从下图最终结果的图表来看,Windows 在 104 项测试中有 47 项测试拔得头筹,占比达到了 45.2%,是 6 个参与测试的系统中表现最为出色的系统,使其成为了 Alder Lake 处理器的最佳平台。

排名第二的操作系统是 Clear Linux 35250,在 104 项测试中有 37 项测试表现优异,占比 35.6;虽然 Fedora Workstation 35 在此次测试中排名第三,但其仅有 10 项测试取得优势,与第二名之间的差距可以说是非常大。

 

与 Alder Lake 相比,在以前基于 Tiger Lake CPU 的性能测试中,Windows 则要比 Ubuntu 的性能稍弱一些,这也验证了英特尔的说法,即如今的 Alder Lake 架构对 Windows 11 确实具有特定的优化,而且从此次测试来看优化幅度还不小。

https://cdn.neow.in/news/images/uploaded/2021/11/1636783179_win_11_vs_ubuntu_21_geomean_tiger_lake.jpg

如前文所述,Alder Lake 采用的是混合架构,即采用了 P + E 的核心组合。Linux 调度程序被设计用来控制多个核心集群,但它并没有被设计用来区分不同类型的核心,这意味着调度程序不知道核心之间的性能差异。因此,调度程序会将工作负载发送到 E 核心,而这些工作负载本应该被发送到更快的 P 核心。

除了完全禁用 E 核心(但会造成多核性能水平下滑),目前 Linux 暂时没有解决这个问题的办法。未来 Linux 肯定会带来与 Alder Lake 更好的兼容性,但现在不能保证这些改进何时会到来。

以下分别是浏览器基准测试、视频编码、图像编码和解压缩测试,感兴趣的用户可以继续查看,也可访问 Phoronix 查看完整报告。

使用 Selenium 进行的浏览器和网络应用程序基准测试中(部分场景下的测试,数值越小越好,请注意区分):

https://cdn.neow.in/news/images/uploaded/2021/11/1636783166_selenium_kraken_story.jpg.    https://cdn.neow.in/news/images/uploaded/2021/11/1636783160_selenium_jetstream-2_story.jpg     https://cdn.neow.in/news/images/uploaded/2021/11/1636783153_selenium_ares-6_story.jpg

AV1 格式的解码和编码测试:

https://cdn.neow.in/news/images/uploaded/2021/11/1636783132_dav1d_summer_nature_1080p_story.jpg     https://cdn.neow.in/news/images/uploaded/2021/11/1636783146_rav1e_0.5_speed_10_story.jpg

解压缩性能测试和大数据可视化性能测试:

https://cdn.neow.in/news/images/uploaded/2021/11/1636783186_zstd_compression_decompression_speed_story.jpg     https://cdn.neow.in/news/images/uploaded/2021/11/1636783139_paraview_wavelet_volume_4k_story.jpg

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