大数据杀熟,是指同样的商品或服务,老客户看到的价格反而比新客户要贵出许多的现象 [1] 。2018年12月20日,大数据杀熟当选为2018年度社会生活类十大流行语 [2] 。
2020年8月20日,文化和旅游部发布了《在线旅游经营服务管理暂行规定》,自2020年10月1日起施行。规定明确了,在线旅游经营者不得滥用大数据分析等技术手段,侵犯旅游者合法权益 [3-4] 。11月10日,国家市场监督管理总局发布《关于平台经济领域的反垄断指南(征求意见稿)》 [5] 。2021年2月7日,国务院反垄断委员会发布关于平台经济领域的反垄断指南,对消费者反映较多的“大数据杀熟”等问题作出专门规定 [17] 。
2021年4月13日,市场监管总局会同中央网信办、税务总局召开互联网平台企业行政指导会。会议指出,实施“大数据杀熟”问题必须严肃整治 [19] 。8月17日,个人信息保护法草案提请全国人大常委会会议三审,对禁止“大数据杀熟”等内容作出规定。 [21]

Big data kills the familiarity, which refers to the phenomenon that the price seen by old customers is much more expensive than that of new customers for the same product or service [1] . On December 20, 2018, big data was selected as the top ten buzzwords in social life in 2018 [2] .
On August 20, 2020, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism issued the “Interim Regulations on the Administration of Online Tourism Business Services”, which will come into force on October 1, 2020. The regulations make it clear that online tourism operators shall not abuse technical means such as big data analysis to infringe on the legitimate rights and interests of tourists [3-4]. On November 10, the State Administration for Market Regulation issued the “Anti-monopoly Guidelines on Platform Economy (Draft for Comment)” [5] . On February 7, 2021, the Anti-Monopoly Committee of the State Council issued an anti-monopoly guideline on the platform economy, making special provisions on issues such as “big data killing” that consumers have reported more [17].
On April 13, 2021, the State Administration for Market Regulation, together with the Central Cyberspace Administration of China and the State Administration of Taxation, held an administrative guidance meeting for Internet platform enterprises. The meeting pointed out that the implementation of “big data killing” must be seriously rectified [19] . On August 17, the draft personal information protection law was submitted to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress for the third trial, and made provisions on the prohibition of “big data killing”. [twenty one]

The “Regulations on the Administration of Algorithm Recommendations for Internet Information Services” jointly issued by the National Cyberspace Administration of China and other four departments will be officially implemented on March 1. The “Regulations” clearly prohibit the use of algorithms to implement unreasonable differential treatment and other illegal acts in terms of transaction prices and other transaction conditions. A reporter from Southern Metropolis found that in the past two years, many departments have regulated the behavior of “big data killing”.

There are thirty-five articles in the “Regulations”, of which Article 21 clearly stipulates that “algorithm recommending service providers to sell goods or provide services to consumers shall protect consumers’ right to fair trade, and shall not Trading habits and other characteristics, using algorithms to implement unreasonable differential treatment and other illegal acts in terms of trading prices and other trading conditions.”

Nandu previously reported that this move was also seen as the regulatory force once again pointed at “big data”. In recent years, the issue of “big data killing” has frequently caused controversy and has also attracted the attention of regulatory authorities. The E-Commerce Law, which has been implemented since 2019, and the Interim Regulations on the Administration of Online Tourism Operations and Services issued by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism in 2020 have relevant regulations that are close to regulating the behavior of “big data killing”.

A reporter from Southern Metropolis found that since 2021, relevant departments have made frequent moves to regulate “big data”.

In February 2021, the Anti-Monopoly Committee of the State Council formulated and issued the Anti-Monopoly Guidelines of the Anti-Monopoly Committee of the State Council on the Platform Economy Field, clarifying that “big data killing” may constitute an abuse of market dominance to restrict transactions.

In July 2021, the State Administration for Market Regulation publicly solicited opinions on the “Regulations on Administrative Penalties for Price Violations (Revised Draft)”, and included “big data” into price violations in the new business field. The department may impose a fine of more than 1‰ and less than 5‰ of the total sales of the previous year.

In August 2021, the State Administration for Market Regulation publicly solicited opinions on the “Prohibition of Unfair Competition on the Internet (Draft for Public Comment)”, and for “big data killing”, it is planned to stipulate that operators shall not use data, algorithms and other technical means , unreasonably provide different transaction information to the counterparty of the transaction with the same transaction conditions.

The “Personal Information Protection Law”, which came into effect on November 1, 2021, also made targeted regulations on “big data killing” and other issues. “Personal information processors use personal information to make automated decision-making, and should ensure the transparency and results of decision-making. Fairness and impartiality, and no unreasonable differential treatment of individuals in terms of transaction prices and other transaction conditions.”

国家网信办等四部门联合发布的《互联网信息服务算法推荐管理规定》,将于3月1日起正式施行。《规定》明确,禁止利用算法在交易价格等交易条件上实行不合理的差别待遇等违法行为。南都记者梳理发现,近两年已有多部门对“大数据杀熟”行为予以规制。

《规定》共三十五条,其中第二十一条明确规定,“算法推荐服务提供者向消费者销售商品或者提供服务的,应当保护消费者公平交易的权利,不得根据消费者的偏好、交易习惯等特征,利用算法在交易价格等交易条件上实施不合理的差别待遇等违法行为。”

南都此前报道,此举也被视为监管力量再次剑指“大数据杀熟”。近年来“大数据杀熟”问题频频引发争议,也引起监管部门重视。2019年起实施的《电子商务法》以及2020年文化和旅游部发布的《在线旅游经营服务管理暂行规定》中,都有接近规制“大数据杀熟”行为的相关规定。

南都记者梳理发现,2021年以来,相关部门对规制“大数据杀熟”更是动作频频。

2021年2月,国务院反垄断委员会制定发布《国务院反垄断委员会关于平台经济领域的反垄断指南》,明确“大数据杀熟”可能构成滥用市场支配地位限定交易行为。

2021年7月,国家市场监管总局就《价格违法行为行政处罚规定(修订征求意见稿)》公开征求意见,将“大数据杀熟”纳入新业态领域中的价格违法行为,违反规定的,监管部门可处上一年度销售总额1‰以上5‰以下的罚款。

2021年8月,国家市场监管总局就《禁止网络不正当竞争行为规定(公开征求意见稿)》公开征求意见,针对“大数据杀熟”行为,拟规定经营者不得利用数据、算法等技术手段,对交易条件相同的交易相对方不合理地提供不同的交易信息。

2021年11月1日起施行的《个人信息保护法》,也对“大数据杀熟”等问题作出针对性规范,“个人信息处理者利用个人信息进行自动化决策,应当保证决策的透明度和结果公平、公正,不得对个人在交易价格等交易条件上实行不合理的差别待遇。”

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